Solar water pumping systems are among the areas where solar energy is used in the most efficient and meaningful way. Considering that wells and other water sources are located in rural areas far from the centers, it is known that using traditional energy sources will require either quite long wiring or the use of a gasoline generator in the field. Since these methods include both expensive equipment and maintenance, and ever-increasing fuel costs, solar energy often yields both more economical and more efficient results.
Solar water pumps can be used for many agricultural purposes: For example, many feeders in America, Australia and South Africa are both easily transported and use their own energy-generating water pumping systems for water supply to their animals in areas where wiring is difficult and costly. They are extremely suitable for water supply in small farms, greenhouses, gardens, and also for the supply of water in farmhouses.
The pumps used in this system are normal submersible pumping systems; their difference is that the energy required for the motor is supplied by the panels as direct current (DC). Therefore, these pumps must work with direct current. An AC inverter requires an inverter (inverter) to convert DC to AC. Since this plus means loss of power due to cost and conversion, it is always more advantageous to use DC motor pumps in solar pumping systems.
A solar water pumping system consists of 4 main parts: pump, pump control unit, solar panels and (optionally) storage unit, i.e. battery. The system is designed depending on the depth of the water source (tank or well) and the amount of water required. The pump provides its power with the energy obtained from the solar panels. The number of solar panels to be used varies depending on the required power (ie height). For example, with a simple system, thanks to 2 12-watt solar panels, 20 m. Depending on the depth, it is possible to achieve a flow rate of 44 to 106 m3 per hour, depending on the depth. With a more powerful system, it is possible to achieve a total flow of 310 to 445 m3 per day at altitudes up to 70 m. Some solar powered submersible pumps can draw water from depths of up to 240 meters.
The current between the panels and the pump is controlled through a "control unit". The control unit shuts down the pump when there is no water in the well / tank, preventing its burning.
So what happens if the weather is off? Of course, all solar energy systems work best in sunny weather. Although the system continues to operate in closed weather, the water yield drawn will decrease. Therefore, storage can be made from two different angles in solar pumping systems. The most economical and reliable method is to install a large water tank, which will serve as a reservoir. The surplus water that will fill the tank during the day will ensure that there is no difficulty in supplying water at night or when there is little sunlight. Therefore, if you are going to install a warehouse system, your warehouse should be large enough to meet your daily needs. Another alternative is to store the energy produced by solar panels during the day in batteries and use them as reserves to draw water at night or when the weather is closed.
One of the most important advantages of solar water pumping systems is that they are simple and durable to use. The pumps, which are the one-piece moving here, constitute a smaller part of the total cost (compared to solar panels). Unless the system is installed in a very dusty area, it is sufficient to check the cables and connections occasionally and dust the panels.
These systems, which are easy to install, can also be easily installed by the user. However, it is useful to make sure that the place you purchased provides all the parts and wiring diagrams, installation and operating manuals required for the system to operate. The panels you purchase will require strong wind-resistant mounting feet because these panels are installed at a certain angle and facing south to get the most out of the sun. It is possible to provide the panels to follow the sun throughout the day by using the systems called "solar tracker", thus obtaining 15-20% more efficiency, but of course this means plus cost.
It is also possible to operate AC powered pumps with solar energy by using the inverter (inverters that convert DC voltage to AC).